In 1996, the Coastal and Air Pollution Department decided to install 8 meteorological Met-One stations at the following locations:

  1. KISR (Shuwaikh)
  2. Um Omara
  3. Al-Wafra
  4. Ras As-Subiyah
  5. Al-Mutla
  6. Um Al-Haiman
  7. Al-Taweel
  8. Ras Az-Zoor

In  March 2008 and after nearly 10 years in service, the department installed the ninth meteorological station (Campbell Scientific) at Al-Huwaimliyah.

As the frequency and the quality of the maintenance and calibration activities of the sensors at the meteorological stations increased, the accuracy of the measured data increased boosting our confidence in using it in research projects. Our meteorological data has been used by researchers in the Air Quality, Environmental Management, Coastal Management, Biodiversity of Terrestrial Ecosystems, Crisis Decision Support, Arid land Agriculture Production, Energy Efficiency Technologies Research, Innovative and Renewable Energy Research, Infrastructure Risk and Reliability, and Construction and Building Materials Programs, as well as officials in Kuwait Ports Authority, Kuwait University, Schlumberger Carbonate Research Centre in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and Det Norske Veritas Limited-DNV Houston-USA.

In April 2008, Kuwait National Meteorological Network (KNMN) was formed. The duties of this entity for the State of Kuwait are:

  1. Monitor the meteorological conditions
  2. Generate a reliable database for the meteorological conditions
  3. Provide meteorological data for research projects and studies for interested parties
  4. Assess research on the effect of meteorological conditions on various natural phenomena
  5. Exchange meteorological data with international meteorological networks
  6. Keep the hardware/software parts of the stations in good working order
  7. Train national manpower in the field of meteorology

The Stations of the Kuwait National Meteorological Network

Each of the Met-One meteorological stations of KNMN is based on a 10m tower and has the following components:-

  1. four wind speed cup-type sensors at 1, 4, 6 and 8m heights to derive the wind speed profile [Met-One / Model: 014A / Uncertainty: ±1.5%],
  2. one combined wind speed and direction sensor (sonic type wind sensor) at 10m height. [Met-One / Model: 50.5] uncertainty: ±0.2 m/s (≤ 11.3 m/s) or ±2% (≥ 11.3 m/s) wind speed, ±3 deg wind direction].
  3. one solar radiation sensor (pyranometer) [LI-COR / Model: 096-1 / Uncertainty: ±5%],
  4. combined relative humidity and temperature sensors (capacitive/resistive type sensor) with solar shield [Met-One / Model: 083E / Uncertainty: ±2%RH, ±0.1oC],
  5. atmospheric pressure sensor [Met-One / Model: 090D / Uncertainty: ±1.35mBar / ±1.25% FS],
  6. rainfall tipping-bucket type sensor [Met-One / Model: 372C / Uncertainty: ±1%],
  7. evaporation gauge with auto-refill feature and [NovaLynx / Model: 255-100 / Uncertainty: 0.25%],
  8. data logger to measure the sensors, store both data and programs, communicate via modems etc. [Campbell Scientific / Model: CR3000].
  9. GSM/GPRS modem for wireless communication [sierra wireless / Model: Fastrack Xtend].

Hardware Repair and Data Handling and Analysis Center

The meteorological stations use Loggernet®. This software is capable of performing calculations for air quality applications and it has the capability of monitoring and calibrating various types of analyzers.

Using Loggernet®, the nine MetOne meteorological stations are networked allowing a central PC at KISR’s headquarter in Shuwaikh to automatically poll the data real-time using GPRS communication protocols. Every morning, weather charts are plotted and carefully examined to decide on daily maintenance activities.

The harsh conditions surrounding the meteorological sensors meant that a continuous maintenance activity was required to keep them operational. Regular maintenance activities include:

  • replacing bearings of wind speed sensors (bearing are replaced every three months during the winter season and every two months during the summer season),
  • cleaning the evaporation pan from algae and sand and replacing the water inside it,
  • cleaning the reed switches in the rain gauges and the tipping bucket mechanisms,
  • replacing faulty level switches in water tanks and evaporation pans,
  • refilling the underground water tanks (once during the winter season and once every three months during the summer season),
  • resetting the modem and the data logger (whenever communication with the station is lost due to power failure or signal carrier fault),
  • calibrating the wind speed and direction sensors (halfway between routine bearing replacement),
  • cleaning and calibrating the relative humidity sensors (once every three months),
  • removing the encroaching sand from the station’s perimeter to reduce the risk of sensor burial with sand,
  • cleaning the solar radiation sensor and the solar panel and,
  • checking the submerged pump filling rate and replacing it when necessary.

Most of the sensors repair and calibration is done either at the Center, where we have a well equipped mini repair workshop, or onsite.

The Meteorological Conditions in the State of Kuwait

The climatic conditions in the State of Kuwait are hot, arid, with scanty rainfall. Hot and dry summer winds are usually experienced for the greater part of the year. In general the naturally-available water in Kuwait is scarce and it varies in its quality. The factors of hot and dry weather, soil characteristics, wind speed and availability of local and regional sources of sand conspire to make the environmental ecosystem balance between the natural elements including the weather, water resources, soil, vegetation and animal life in the desert of Kuwait rather fragile.

The prevailing wind direction in Kuwait is north-western with winds blowing in this direction representing 60% of total wind throughout the year. North-western winds are hot and dry during the summer due to the long distance they travel over the deserts of Saudi Arabia, Syria, Jordan and Iraq. These winds can attain a speed of 19 m/s (gust speed), which far exceeds the threshold shear velocity (~0.6m/s) that is required to transport a  particle of average size (0.4-2mm diameter). During the spring season, the contribution of south-eastern wind increases to match that of the north-western wind. This change is accompanied by an increase in the high wind velocities. Maximum wind speed can reach 29.5 m/s whilst maximum reported gust speed is 37.6 m/s (record). Strong south-eastern winds can cause very severe dust storms which can impair visibility to few meters. April is well known for its sudden dust storms, which are accompanied by thunderstorms. During the winter season, the wind is north-western mainly. South-eastern winds over a period up to few days can occur during winter due to the effect of Mediterranean depressions.

The mean total rainfall rate is about 118mm a year. The rainfall in Kuwait has no specific trend. In average eight days of the year can be considered as rainy. Still, the rainy days might exceed 40 days in some years and the mean total rainfall rate can reach 336mm. Rain affects patches in Kuwait rather than the whole country. Rain can start in November and continue very intermittently till April. Occasional rain in October and May can happen sometimes with January being the rainiest month of the year.

The average annual temperature is 26oC. In July, the average temperature is 37.4oC and the maximum can reach 45oC. The diurnal range (difference between the day and night temperatures) in the summer is about 17oC leaving the nights unpleasantly hot. The maximum recorded temperature was 50.8oC in June 1954. The weather is warm to hot in October and mild to cold, with thunderstorms sometimes, in November. The weather is coldest in January with temperature reaching about 12oC. Minimum record temperature measured in 1964 of -4oC. During the spring season, the temperature varies substantially and this can happen during the same day.

Data Request

The eight Met-One stations use the sensors listed in Table 1 to measure following parameters:

  1. Wind speed at five heights measured using five wind speed cup-type sensors at 1, 4, 6, 8 and 10m heights. The 10m high cup-type sensors was upgraded to ultrasonic type in 2006.
  2. Wind direction using a vane-type sensor at 10m height. This sensor was upgraded to ultrasonic type in 2006.
  3. Global horizontal solar radiation (pyranometer).
  4. Relative humidity and temperature using a capacitive/resistive type sensor with solar shield.
  5. Atmospheric pressure.
  6. Rainfall using a tipping-bucket type sensor.
  7. Evaporation rate using a level switch with auto-refill feature for the evaporation pan.

The ninth meteorological station (Campbell Scientific Type) uses the sensors listed in Table 2 to measure the following parameters:

  • 2D wind speed and direction at 2, 4, 6 and 8m heights using four 2-D ultra-sonic wind speed/direction sensors.
  • 3D wind speed and direction at 10m height using ultra-sonic wind speed/direction sensor.
  • Relative humidity and temperature using a combined capacitive/resistive type sensor with solar shield.
  • Rainfall using a tipping-bucket type sensor.
  • Global horizontal solar radiation (from March 2012).

Table 1. The specifications of Met-One stations’ sensors

Sensor

Model

Manufacturer

Range

Uncertainty

Relative Humidity

083D

Met One

0-100%

<±2% RH between 10-100% RH

Temperature

-50 to +50 deg C

±0.10 deg C

Wind Speed

014A

Met One

0-60 m/s (operating range)

±1.5%

0-50 m/s (Calibrated range)

Wind Direction
(Replaced by sonic type in 2006)

024A

Met One

0 to 360 deg Mechanical

±5 deg.

0 to 356 deg Electrical

Barometric Pressure

090D

Met One

880 to 1083 mB

±1.35 mB (± 0.125% FS)

Rain Gauge

372C

Met One

 

±1% at 1" to 3" per hour at 7 deg. F (0.05 mm per tip)

Solar Radiation

096-1

LI-COR

0 to 1650 W/m²

±5%

Evaporation Level Gauge

255-100

NovaLynx

0 to 240 mm Mechanical

0.25 %

0 to 254 mm Electrical

Wind Sensor (sonic type)

50.5

Met One

0-50 m/s

±0.2 m/s ( 11.3 m/s) or ±2% ( 11.3 m/s)

0 to 360 deg

±3 deg

Table 2. The specifications of Campbell Scientific stations’ sensors

Sensor

Manufacturer

Make

Range

Uncertainty

Wind Sensor

Wind Sonic

Gill

0-60 m/s

±2% (12 m/s)

0-359 deg

±3% (20 m/s)

Wind Sensor (3D)

Windmaster

Gill

Wind Speed (U&V)

 

0-20 m/s

1.5%

20-35 m/s

reduces from 1.5 to 3%

35-60 m/s

3%

Wind Speed (W)

 

Wind vector within 10 deg of UV plane

 

Wind vector withing 10 deg of UV plane

3% of magnitude

Direction 0 to 359

±2 deg (<25 m/s) or ±4 deg (< 25 m/s)

Relative Humidity

H50Y

Campbell Scientific / Vaisala

0 to 100% RH (operating range)

±2 at 10%, ±3% at 90%, ±6% at 90-100%

10 to 90% (for the specified accuracy)

Temperature

H50Y

-10 to +60 deg C (for the specified accuracy)

±0.35 deg C at -10 deg C, ±0.6 deg C at +60 deg C

-40 to +60 deg C (operating range)

Rain Gauge

52203

Young

 

2% up to 25 mm/hour 3% up to 50 mm/hour (0.1mm per trip

Solar radiation

CS300

Campbell Scientific Apogee

0 to 2000 w/m2

±5%

The longitude and latitude for the nine stations are listed in Table 3.

 Table 3. Latitudes and longitudes of KNMN’s nine meteorological stations

 

Station

Latitude

Longitude

1

Ras As-Subiyah

N29 34 55.0

E48 05 00.0

2

Al-Mutla

N29 22 54.0

E47 37 05.0

3

KISR

N29 20 02.0

E47 54 37.0

4

Um Omara

N29 07 33.0

E47 06 00.0

5

Um Al-Haiman

N28 56 35.0

E48 08 22.0

6

Al-Taweel

N28 55 18.0

E47 52 29.0

7

Ras Az-Zoor

N28 44 46.0

E48 21 29.0

8

Al-Wafra

N28 37 01.0

E48 00 29.0

9

Al-Huwaimliyah

N29 40 02.2

E47 04 35.9

 

KNMN can provide raw meteorological data at the cost of KD 50 per station per month. The data can be purchased from:

Kuwait National Meteorological Network

Environment and Life Sciences Center

Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research

P.O. Box 24885

13109 Safat

Kuwait

Fax: +965 24989079

To obtain an official quotation please provide contact:

Ashraf Ramadan Email:-  This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

 

Clients

KNMN is proud to have supplied meteorological data to many clients, a selection of which is listed below:

Companies:

  • Life Energy-Kuwait
  • Kharafi National KSC-Kuwait
  • Gulf Engineering Co-Kuwait
  • Easa Husain Al-Yousifi & Sons Co-Kuwait
  • Arabi Enertech KSC-Kuwait
  • Abdulaziz Abdulmohsin Al-Rashed Sons Co-Kuwait
  • Bader Al-Mulla-Kuwait
  • KCC Engineering & Contracting CO-Kuwait
  • Kazema Engineering Projects-Kuwait
  • Al-Omaraa Company-Kuwait
  • Al-Kulaib International Trading Co.WLL-Kuwait
  • National Petroleum Services Co-Kuwait
  • Noor Financial Investment Company
  • Sad Hamid Bahbehani & Sons-Kuwait
  • ABJ Engineering& Contracting Co-Kuwait
  • Al-Argan National General Trading-Kuwait
  • Combined Group Contracting Co-Kuwait
  • Schlumberger Carbonate Research Center-KSA
  • Enviromena Power Systems LLC-UAE
  • Det Norske VERITAS Limited-USA
  • SK Engineering Construction-S. Korea
  • Jord International-Australia
  • Huawei Company-Japan
  • Solar Electric-France
  • BIOSAR Energy S.A. - Greece



Universities:

  • Kuwait University-Kuwait
  • Cardiff University-UK
  • Loughborough University-UK
  • Oklahoma State University-USA